Very detailed and very complete list of instructions, in that everything is predicted the Memory contains transitory information (internal memory) and the permanent one, already processed (external memory). It also includes the program of each task to realise, contains thousands of simple instructions. The Unit of processing: of publication and document record departments (it allows to transfer the data contained in the central memory, or by means of arithmetical operations or logics) and of specialized registries (it controls the march of the computer, loads the data of the program). The Peripheral Memory: they are the tapes and the discs that also serve like entrance units and or of exit. The Terminals are all a series of units of direct entrance or exit of information to the computer. They are remote of the United Power station. From the third generation of computers (1969; from 1952 each generation implies a technological change, that it improves the speed and power).
It has scientific and administrative applications. In the pure and applied investigation, statistic analysis, simulation of situations (operations research). They cover the totality with the tasks of a great one Organization. She fulfills the tasks routine, she takes advantage of that standardization, to transform useless positions, to suppress unnecessary steps, to simplify circuits. Thus the labor structures and to the same personnel improve, who is to become qualified and to adapt its knowledge to new methods of work, perfecting their conditions, capacity of analysis, etc.
Before one worked with the Perforated Holey Cards, Tapes, with a team of drills and one reader, the Tape or Magnetic stripe, of plastic, recording in the form of ” bits” by magnetic points. 680,0000 numerical characters per second. They are conserved in spools. 180 million characters are equivalent to 180 books According to the History of the Electronics, the history of the Computers develops chronological of the following way: l. – from 1955-80. Slow, reduced storage capacity, magnetic tapes, equipment of electronic tubes and valves, 5,000 operations per second. Monoprogramas. 2. – 1960-65. It increases the storage capacity central. They appear peripheral units. The components are the transistors. 200,000 operations per second. 3. – 1965-70. The central memory grows without practical limit. Multiprogramas. Peripheral units of great capacity. ” Time sharing”: daily practice, timesharing, utility of l for different people. Integrated circuits. 2.000.000 of operations per second. 4. – decade of the 80. Transistors. Developed personal computers until incredible limits. Up to 64 K of memory. Reduction in price of hardware. Several tens of millions of operations per second. 5. – Fifth generation: equipment made up of ” chips” , integrated circuits. Artificial intelligence: to make decisions, to analyze, to inform. Automatic text treatment. Automatic writing of summaries. 10.000.000 of operations per second.