portrait of Alexander II
Tsar Alexander II, who succeeded Nicholas I in 1855, was a conservative who saw no alternative but to implement a change. Alejandro start reforms in education, government, judiciary and army. In 1861, proclaimed the emancipation of nearly 20 million worshipers. Local commissions, which were the possessors of land, made the emancipation of the slaves by giving limited freedom. The old easement remained in the villages, but required payment of government almost fifty years. The government issued to landowners compenzo finances.
Flag adopted in 1883
The empire which had offset more than 50,000 landowners who owned more than 1.1 KMA without serfs and would continue to provide these administrative and political leader in the field. The government also hopes that the farmers produced enough food for themselves and for export, thereby helping to finance expenditure, imports and the large external debt. None of the government’s expectations were realistic, emancipation left both andalusia disgruntled landowner and farmer. The new peasants soon arrears to the government because the land they received was poor and because Russian agricultural methods were inadequate. The former owners of land they had to sell to be as reliable as most could not manage the land without slaves. Furthermore, the value of government loans fell in the same way.
Reforms in local government closely followed by the emancipation. In 1864 the local governments of European Russia were organized in the provinces and districts ziemstva (ziemstvo singular), which were composed of representatives of all classes and were responsible for local schools, public health, roads, prisons, food supplies, and other treatment. In 1870 the DUMI (singular duma) or elected to town councils, were formed. Dominated by landlords and bound by the provincial governors and police, dumas zemstva and increased taxes and employment taxes to support its activities.
In 1864 the regime launched the Great Judicial Reform. In major cities, established Western-style courts with juries. In general, the judicial system works effectively, but the government lacked the financial and cultural influence to extend the judicial system to the villages, where traditional peasant justice continued to operate with minimal interference from provincial officials. The Russian legal system was shaped to contemporary French and German laws. Each case had to be decided on its merits and not on precedents. Still this approach from other major reforms that occurred in educational and cultural spheres. The ascension of Alexander II brought a social restoration, which required a public discussion of issues and the lifting of some types of censorship. When there was an attempt to assassinate the tsar in 1866 the government reinstate censorship, but not with the severity of control prior to 1855. The government also put restrictions on universities in 1866 five years after they had gained autonomy the peasants and serfs. The central government try to act with zemstva establish uniform curricula for elementary schools and to impose conservative policies, but lacked resources, because many liberal teachers and school officials were only reactionary nominees according to the ministry of education, without However, the regime’s educational achievements were mixed after 1866.
In the financial sphere, Russia established the State Bank in 1866, which gave the national currency stability, and firmness. The Ministry of Finance supported railroad development, which facilitated vital export activity, but was cautious and moderate in its foreign companies. The ministry also founded the Land Bank farmer in 1882 to enable enterprising farmers to acquire more land. The ministry of internal affairs contradicted this policy, however, established the Land Bank of the nobles in 1885 to prevent executions mortgages.
The rule also attempts to reform the military. One of the main reasons for the emancipation of the serfs was to facilitate the transition to the Army Reserve, and more modern operating instituting territorial levies and mobilization in times of need. Before emancipation, serfs could not receive military training and then return to their owners. Bureaucratic inertia, however, obstructed military reform until the Franco-Prussian War (1870 – 1871) demonstrated the need to build a modern army.
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