WINE, SCIENCE AND HEALTH. Review Dr. Raul Pastor The wine has been part of human culture from about 6,000 years ago and the historical background related to wine for health and longevity, especially in the Mediterranean culture. Indeed in France and other Mediterranean countries (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece and Yugoslavia) the wine is made to the normal behavior of people, who eat them with meals and celebrations. In the past eighteen years has been a number of scientific studies showing that moderate drinking is beneficial for health, especially for the prevention of coronary disease. The interest in studying the wine was born after an investigation by the World Health Organization, the MONICA Project in 1989.This work confirmed that the death rates from cardiovascular diseases were much lower in France than in other industrialized countries like USA and UK. This occurs despite the fact that consumption of saturated fats (14-15 of energy intake) and plasma cholesterol levels are similar in France and in USA and the UK. This situation is called French Paradox. Other risk factors such as smoking or blood pressure did not account for this difference. The explanation was sought in the diet of French, Mediterranean, rich in fruits and vegetables and wine. Research ascribe a key role of moderate wine consumption in the diet of the French, for its high content of natural antioxidant polyphenolic compounds. Current evidence shows that chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, dementia and cancer are associated with oxidative stress. The antioxidant compounds ingested by the diet would be essential for the prevention of these diseases.Wine polyphenols protect, for example, LDL (low density lipoprotein) oxidation, and therefore the initiation of the process of atherosclerosis. Wine makes people well, if used in moderation and regularity. This actually corresponds to a very old perception, testimony which has been in the writings of many. The perception of many was and is that wine is healthy, good for your health and quality of life of people. Scientists have contributed greatly to sustain what people had perceived.Define the wine for just a sad accident, a drunk or dead from cirrhosis, is to repudiate the ciencia.Resumo conditions that moderate wine consumption reduces disease and improves quality of life: Moderate wine consumers: Live more. It has fewer cardiovascular problems. It has less dementia and cognitive impairment. It has fewer cancer (something shown only for certain types of cancer). And scientists are working the issue in the world, we have established some of the scientific explanations of these benefits. Moderate consumers of wine are: Higher levels of good cholesterol (HDL) less tendency to closure or blockage of the arteries from clotting or thrombosis. Reduced oxidative damage in their DNA, ie in their genetic material.Reduced oxidative damage in their bad cholesterol (LDL) which when oxidized can directly irritate the endothelial cells lining the inside of the arteries, initiating atherosclerosis. And although they cost more to understand, have more and better works, an enzyme in endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO, a gas) that would normally cause vessels to dilate lowering blood pressure.