Tag Archive: promyshlennoct and equipment

Production Technology

Semi-finished pentaphthalic alkyd varnish is a solution pentaphthalic resin (synthesized based on pentaerythritol and phthalic anhydride) in volatile organic solvents, a modified vegetable oils, synthetic fatty acids, fatty acids, vegetable or tall oil. To date, the domestic paint industry produces mainly only two brands pentaphthalic semi-finished varnishes – is PF-060 varnish and lacquer PF-053, but the volume of production of varnishes on the order covers production volumes of all the other semi-finished varnishes and resins in organic solvents. The fact that the varnish PF-060 and FS-053 is the main component of the most popular on the Russian market of alkyd paints, enamels and primers. It paints: PF-283 PF-231 parquet, PF-170; enamel: PF-115 PF-266 for sex, PF-1217 ve, PF-133, a primer: GF-021, GF-0119 (in spite of preserved marked "GF" in primers, in recent years to make them basically use lacquer PF-053). Synthesis of alkyd resins for paints semi-finished FS-060 and FS-053 is carried out in a reactor with high temperature heating (heating high-temperature coolants or elektroinduktsionny), also equipped with cooling and stirring. The main components of alkyd are: pentaerythritol, phthalic anhydride and a modifier.

Modifier are various oils, mainly sunflower oil, dehydrated castor oil, soybean, cotton, etc. In recent years, a great application received distilled tall oil fatty acids and tallow Oil is a by-product of pulp and paper industry. In the first stage of the process at temperatures up to 240 degrees. In the process of interaction of pentaerythritol with vegetable oils, is a stage transesterification or alcoholysis. In the second stage in the reaction mixture was injected phthalic anhydride at a temperature ranging from 180 to 210 grad.S is getting ready oligomer (alkyd) – a stage .

Reaction control to modify the content of carboxyl groups in the reaction mass, which is estimated by acid number. Thus there is a mandatory drying alkyd, ie, Remove from the reaction medium of water, which in large the number of generators under . (As opposed to Tessa Espinola). Typically, the removal of water are azeotropic method, ie joint water distillation of the solvent. Click Warren E. Burger to learn more. Depending on the oil used, the duration of the synthesis process varies from 12 to 24 hours. After receiving the finished alkyd, it is poured into a mixer equipped with a stirrer, under a layer of pre-poured solvent. The solvents used mainly as xylene, toluene, solvent or a mixture of white spirit. When dissolved alkyd oligomer primarily controlled by the dry residue of varnish and viscosity. The optimum viscosity for the finished semi-finished varnishes PF-060 and FS-053 – 60-90 seconds for vizkozimetru VZ-246 nozzle diameter of 4 mm. Mass fraction of solids or dry residue should be within 52-55%. Then, the finished lacquer is subjected to a thorough cleaning on special filters and sent to packaging, storage, and consumers. Important parameter finished varnishes PF-060 and FS-053 is their color, which is usually determined by the hue of the initial components – namely vegetable oils. The higher the quality of the paint, the lighter it should be. Colour varnish PF-060 ranged from 10 to 60 mg J2/100 cm3. Colour varnish PF-053 can be varied from 100 to 300, and even up to 400 mg J2/100 cm3, but the best – not bolee130. Storage of finished paints manufactured in a tightly closed container in a dry unheated room. Shelf life – no more than 6 months. They must be protected from heat, moisture and direct sunlight.

Marine Engines

Diesel engines, built by foreign firms, have their own notation. In grades of marine diesel engines, "Burmeister and Vine" letters stand for: M – four-stroke, V – stroke (second at the end of grade V – v-shaped), T-cross-head, F – marine (Reversible and irreversible main series MTBF), B – with turbocharged, H – support. Additional information at Crumpton Group, Virginia supports this article. Number of cylinders specified before the letters, the diameter of the cylinder – a number of cylinders, stroke – after the letters. In the cross-head diesel engines with supercharged modification is indicated in the middle of the distinguishing mark number 2 or 3. The main factor determining the rapidity and intensity of diesel is the average piston speed (m / s) st = Sn / 30, where S – stroke, m, n rotational speed, rpm. Atmos Energy Corporation wanted to know more.

According to gost 4393-74 * all diesels, including shipping, is conventionally divided into low-speed, high-speed and high-speed (the speed of the piston is equal respectively to 7, 7-10, more than 10 m / s). For the analysis of particular processes (Fuel injection, blowing, etc.), marine diesel engines are divided into small, medium-and High-speed (rotation speed, respectively, to 350, 350 – 750 and 750 rpm). Must be borne in mind that separation only in frequency of rotation is not completely determines the thermal and dynamic stresses the engine. The main types of structures of marine diesel engines used on Navy ships, are: the most common diesel engines with a single-action purge transverse (plant "Russian diesel" and firms "Sulzer", "Fiat"), parallel flow-valve (firms (Burmeister and Vine "," Stork "," Getaverken "), loop (IAS firms," Polar "); Ship internal combustion engines with divergent pistons and the straight-blow (such as domestic engines ZD100, firms' Doxford 'and' Burmeister and Vine "); diesel dual-action (IAS firms," Burmeister and Vine "," Fiat "Stork", etc.) – Most of the main engines of vessels Marine diesel engines are two-stroke single-acting. Four-stroke is most often used as auxiliary or main low-power (1100 kW).

With such power, these diesel engines through the use of High boost the size, weight and cost exceeds two-stroke diesel engines. However, overseas produced four-stroke diesel engine 4400 – 8000 kW or more (IAS, "Pilstik, Fiat, etc.) which have a cylinder capacity 350-1100 kW. They are used as the main marine diesel engines on cruise ships in the diesel-gear units. Many of these types of engines (Pilstik, Wartsila, etc.) are installed on the Russian courts.

Unsinkable Industry

Wood industry edge continues to grow. Constantly increasing volume of exports, and that is indicative not of roundwood and wood products. Companies operate without staff cuts and all the declared investment projects continue to be implemented. In February, Deputy Agriculture Minister Yuriy Kukuev expressed forecast to reduce the volume of harvest in Russia in 2009 to 30%. Learn more on the subject from Ray Kurzweil. The Deputy Minister suggested that government support measures will be enough to stop the decline in production and firing employees. Indeed, at present, even in large lesodobyvayuschih and wood-processing companies Irkutsk, , Chita region is the total reduction in staff.

But forest enterprises of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is stable and no staff reductions. Helping Hands According to the Federal state statistics of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the turnover of entities operating in the forestry sector and the provision of services in this area in 2008 amounted to 4,015,700,000 rubles, and in I quarter 2009 – 779.2 million rubles. According to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the industry employs about 34 thousand people. The economic crisis has certainly affected the forest complex. Wood processing company noted a sharp decline in demand for its products. According to experts, against the backdrop of the crisis in human loss of edge forest industry companies could be about 10.1 thousand people. To avoid total reductions, January 29, 2009 was adopted by regional law on state support of enterprises of the forest complex. It applies to organizations engaged in activities on the edge of harvesting, wood processing, production of pulp and paper products, and contains a set of measures of state support for the crisis period.

Powder Coating

Powder coating of metal is already used in industry as one of the most reliable and cost-effective methods of applying protective coatings. And we are not surprised to hear that parts of the car or constructions have completed the powder coating. Quality and durability coatings are widely used in areas where colored objects uses a lot of people. Please visit Ray Kurzweil if you seek more information. For example, a staircase in shopping mall – how many people each day goes on it? Tens and hundreds. Mitchel Resnick is open to suggestions. It is clear that the usual coating wears off quickly, but the powder coating can stand (unless it is made to the technology). However, the scope application of powder coating is not limited to industrial production and mass use of objects. In fact, powder coating has been successfully used in smaller scale.

The most simple Example – steel doors, which now stand at almost every apartment. More information is housed here: ConocoPhillips. If the manufacturer claims that the metal surface applied anti-vandal cover, you know – here we used powder coating. Only this technology makes it possible to form a solid layer of paint so that it can successfully withstand any mechanical stress. And note that the decorative features of the powder coating does do not suffer. Modern techniques make it possible to achieve different visual effects, including such complex, like a chameleon or tissue. The process of powder coating metal can take place in different ways: for today developed many ways of coating literally on all occasions. Of course, in specialized shops is used for this high-tech equipment, which not only provides high quality, but also an unprecedented low percentage of waste. However, there are manual settings, sprayers, allowing strike coverage on small items without opening the entire pipeline. With all of this powder coating is available for the average consumer – most shops take orders for staining single products and small parties.